立博的官网是什么重磅美國宣告單方面消除中國

发布时间2020-02-19    点击数: 197   作者:立博的官网是什么

眾所周知,依據世界貿易組織(WTO)的有關規定,定位為“開展中國家”的成員國在國際貿易中享有“特殊和不同待遇”(SpecialandDifferentialtreatment,簡稱S&DT),開展中國家成員可在關稅減讓、非關稅壁壘削弱等方面享有更優惠的待遇。

此次被美國撤銷貿易特殊待遇的經濟體,立博的官网是什么除了中國和香港外,還包羅阿爾巴尼亞、阿根廷、亞美尼亞、巴西,保加利亞、哥倫比亞、哥斯達黎加、格魯吉亞、印度、印度尼西亞、哈薩克斯坦、吉爾吉斯共和國、馬來西亞、摩爾多瓦、黑山共和國、北馬其頓、羅馬尼亞、新加坡、南非、南韓、泰國、烏克蘭和越南。

SUMMARY:TheU.S.TradeRepresentativeisdesignatingWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)Membersthatareeligibleforspecialdeminimiscountervailablesubsidyandnegligibleimportvolumestandardsunderthecountervailingduty(CVD)law.

ElsewhereinthisissueoftheFederalRegister,theU.S.TradeRepresentativeisremovingtheOfficeoftheUnitedStatesTradeRepresentative’srulesthatcontainthedesignationssupersededbythisnotice.

FORFURTHERINFORMATIONCONTACT:DavidP.Lyons,AssistantGeneralCounsel,at202–395–9446,orRoyMalmrose,DirectorforIndustrialSubsidies,at202–395–9542.

IntheUruguayRoundAgreementsAct(URAA),PublicLaw103–465,CongressamendedtheCVDlawtoconformtoU.S.obligationsundertheWTOAgreementonSubsidiesandCountervailingMeasures(SCMAgreement).UndertheSCMAgreement,WTOMembersthathavenotyetreachedthestatusofadevelopedcountryareentitledtospecialtreatmentforpurposesofcountervailingmeasures.Specifically,importsfromsuchMembersaresubjecttodifferentthresholdsforpurposesofdeterminingwhethercountervailablesubsidiesaredeminimisandwhetherimportvolumesarenegligible.

Undersection771(36)oftheTariffActof1930,asamended(theAct),19U.S.C.1677(36),CongressdelegatedtotheU.S.TradeRepresentativetheresponsibilityfordesignatingthoseWTOMemberswhoseimportsaresubjecttothesespecialthresholds.Inaddition,section771(36)(D)requirestheU.S.TradeRepresentativetopublishalistofdesignations,updatedasnecessary,intheFederalRegister.Thisnoticeimplementstherequirementsofsection771(36)(D).

OnJune2,1998,theU.S.TradeRepresentativepublishedaninterimfinalrule(1998rule)designatingSubsidyAgreementcountrieseligibleforspecialdeminimiscountervailablesubsidyandnegligibleimportvolumestandardsundertheCVDlaw.See63FR29945.‘‘SubsidiesAgreementcountry’’isdefinedinsection701(b)oftheAct,19U.S.C.1671(b),andincludescountriesthatareWTOMembers.TheU.S.TradeRepresentativeisrevisingthelistsinthe1998rule,asdescribedbelow,andremovingthe1998rulebecauseitnowisobsolete.

DeMinimisThresholds:UnderArticle11.9oftheSCMAgreement,authoritiesmustterminateaCVDinvestigationiftheamountofthesubsidyisdeminimis,whichnormallyisdefinedaslessthan1percentadvalorem.UnderArticle27.10(a),however,foradevelopingMemberthedeminimisstandardis2percentorless.ConsistentwithArticle27.11andsection703(b)(4)oftheAct,the2percentdeminimisthresholdalsonowappliestoleast-developedcountries.

NegligibleImportVolumes:UnderArticle11.9,authoritiesmustterminateaCVDinvestigationifthevolumeofsubsidizedimportsfromacountryisnegligible.UndertheCVDlaw,importsfromanindividualcountrynormallyareconsiderednegligibleiftheyarelessthan3percentoftotalimportsofaproductintotheUnitedStates.Importsarenotconsiderednegligibleiftheaggregatevolumeofimportsfromallcountrieswhoseindividualvolumesarelessthan3percentexceeds7percentofallsuchmerchandise.However,underArticle27.10(b)andsection771(24)(B)oftheAct,importsfromadevelopingorleast-developedMemberareconsiderednegligibleiftheimportvolumeislessthan4percentoftotalimports,unlesstheaggregatevolumeofimportsfromcountrieswhoseindividualvolumesarelessthan4percentexceeds9percent.

IntheURAA,CongressincorporatedintotheCVDlawtheSCMAgreementstandardsfordeminimisthresholdsandnegligibleimportvolumes.Section703(b)(4)(B)–(D)oftheAct,19U.S.C.1671b(b)(4)(B)–(D),incorporatesthedeminimisstandards,whilesection771(24)(B),19U.S.C.1677(24)(B),incorporatesthenegligibleimportstandards.However,inthestatuteitself,CongressdidnotidentifybynamethoseWTOMemberseligibleforspecialtreatment.Instead,section267oftheURAAaddedsection771(36)totheAct,whichdelegatestotheU.S.TradeRepresentativetheresponsibilitytodesignatethoseWTOMemberssubjecttospecialstandardsfordeminimisandnegligibleimportvolume.Inaddition,section771(36)requirestheU.S.TradeRepresentativetopublishintheFederalRegister,andupdateasnecessary,alistoftheMembersdesignatedaseligibleforspecialtreatmentundertheCVDlaw.

TheeffectofthesedesignationsislimitedtoTitleVIIoftheAct.Specifically,section771(36)(E)oftheActprovidesthatthefactthataWTOMemberisdesignatedinthelistasdevelopingorleast-developedhasno

Inmakingthedesignations,theU.S.TradeRepresentativereliedonpercapitagrossnationalincome(GNI)datafromtheWorldBankandtradedatafromtheTradeDataMonitor,whichcontainsofficialdatafromnationalstatisticalbureaus,customsauthorities,centralbanks,andothergovernmentagencies.

Asexplainedabove,thedistinctionbetweendevelopingandleast-developedcountriesnolongermattersforpurposesofthedeminimis

threshold:bothareeligibleforthesame2percentrate.Nonetheless,forclarityandconsistentwithsection771(36)oftheAct,thisnotice

separatelyidentifiesdevelopingandleast-developedcountries.ThelistofWTOMembersthatareleast-developedcountriesisderivedfromAnnexVIItotheSCMAgreement,whichdescribesleast-developedcountriesasthosedesignatedbytheUnitedNations(AnnexVII(a))

andnamedinAnnexVII(b)),providedthepercapitaGNPhasnotreached$1,000perannum.AnumberofWTOMembersareincludedontheUnitedNationslistofleast-developedcountries,1andseveralmoreareincludedunderAnnexVII(b)basedupontheirGNIpercapitaatconstant1990dollars:Coˆted’Ivoire,Ghana,Honduras,Kenya,Nicaragua,Nigeria,Pakistan,Senegal,andZimbabwe.2

Basedonsection771(36)(D)oftheAct,indeterminingwhichWTOMembersshouldbeconsideredasdevelopingand,thus,eligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,theU.S.TradeRepresentativehasconsideredappropriateeconomic,trade,andother

2SeeDohaMinisterialDecisiononImplementation-RelatedIssuesandConcerns,WT/MIN(01)17(November20,2001)(specifyingthatAnnexVII(b)istolistMembersuntiltheirGNPpercapitareaches$1,000inconstant1990U.S.dollarsforthreeconsecutiveyears;seealsoUpdatingGNPPerCapitaforMembersListedinAnnexVII(b)asForeseeninParagraph10.1oftheDohaMinisterialDecisionandinAccordancewiththeMethodologyinG/SCM/38,G/SCM/110/Add.16(May14,2019)(circulatingupdatedcalculationsbytheSecretariat).

factors,includingthelevelofeconomicdevelopmentofacountry(basedonareviewofthecountry’spercapitaGNI)andacountry’sshareofworldtrade.TheU.S.TradeRepresentativedevelopedthelistofMemberseligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandardbasedonthefollowingcriteria:(1)PercapitaGNI,(2)shareofworldtrade,and

(3)otherfactorssuchasOrganizationforEconomicCo-operationandDevelopment(OECD)membershiporapplicationformembership,EuropeanUnion(EU)membership,andGroupofTwenty(G20)membership.

Similartothe1998rule,theU.S.TradeRepresentativereliedontheWorldBankthresholdseparating‘‘highincome’’countriesfromthosewithlowerpercapitaGNIs.3ThismeansthatWTOMemberswithapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375weretreatedaseligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,subjecttotheotherfactorsdescribedbelow.AdvantagesofrelyingupontheWorldBankhighincomedesignationincludethatitisstraightforwardtoapply,basedonarecognizedGNIdividinglinebetweendevelopedanddevelopingcountriesforpurposesoftheworld’sprimarymultilaterallendinginstitution,andconsistentwiththetestforbeneficiarydevelopingcountrystatussetoutintheU.S.GeneralizedSystemofPreferencesstatute,section502(e)oftheTradeActof1974.

TheU.S.TradeRepresentativealsoconsideredwhethercountriesaccountforasignificantshareofworldtradeand,thus,shouldbetreatedasineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard.Inthe1998rule,theU.S.TradeRepresentativeconsideredashareofworldtradeof2percentormoretobe‘‘significant’’becauseofthecommitmentintheStatementofAdministrationAction(SAA),approvedbytheCongressalongwiththeURAA,thatHongKong,Korea,andSingaporewouldbeineligiblefordevelopingcountrytreatment,andeachofthesecountriesaccountedforashareofworldtradeinexcessof2percent.TheU.S.TradeRepresentativenowconsiders0.5percenttobeamoreappropriateindicatorofa‘‘significant’’shareofworldtrade.Accordingtothemostrecentavailabledatafrom2018,relativelyfewcountriesaccountforsuchalargeshare(i.e.,morethan0.5percent)ofworldtrade,andthosethatdoincludemanyofthewealthiesteconomies.

ForpurposesofU.S.CVDlaw,theU.S.TradeRepresentativethereforeconsiderscountrieswithashareof0.5percentormoreofworldtradetobedevelopedcountries.Thus,Brazil,India,Indonesia,Malaysia,Thailand,andVietNamareineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,notwithstandingthat,basedonthemostrecentWorldBankdata,eachcountryhasapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375.

Section771(36)(D)oftheActcontemplatesthattheU.S.TradeRepresentativemayconsideradditionalfactors.Tothatend,consistentwiththe1998rule,theU.S.TradeRepresentativetookintoaccountEUmembership,whichindicatesarelativelyhighlevelofeconomicdevelopment.Inaddition,undersection771(3)oftheAct,theEUmaybetreatedasasinglecountryforpurposesoftheCVDlawand,whileuncommon,therehavebeenCVDinvestigationsagainstmerchandisefromtheEuropeanCommunities,ratherthanEUMemberStates.BecausetheEUisineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,itwouldbeanomaloustotreatanindividualEUMemberaseligibleforthatstandard.Accordingly,forpurposesofU.S.CVDlaw,theU.S.TradeRepresentativeconsidersallEUMembersasdevelopedcountries.Thus,BulgariaandRomaniaareineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,notwithstandingthat,basedonthemostrecentWorldBankdata,eachcountryhasapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375.

TheU.S.TradeRepresentativealsotookintoaccountOECDmembershipandapplicationsforOECDmembership.ThecharacterizationoftheOECDasagroupingofdevelopedcountrieshasbeenconfirmedthroughoutitsexistenceinanumberofpublishedOECDdocuments,andtheOECDconsistentlyhasbeenviewedas,andactsitselfinthecapacityof,theprincipalorganizationofdevelopedeconomiesworldwide.Thus,byjoiningorapplyingtojointheOECD,acountryeffectivelyhasdeclareditselftobedeveloped.Althoughthe1998ruleconsideredOECDmembershiponly,giventhesignificanceofthisself-designation,theactofapplyingtotheOECD,inadditiontojoining,indicatesthatacountryisdeveloped.Accordingly,theU.S.TradeRepresentativehasdeterminedthatanOECDmemberorapplicantshouldnotbeeligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard.Thus,ColombiaandCosta

Ricaareineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,notwithstandingthat,basedonthemostrecentWorldBankdata,eachcountryhasapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375.

TheU.S.TradeRepresentativealsotookintoaccountG20membership.TheG20wasestablishedinSeptember1999,andsowasnotconsideredinthe1998rule.TheG20isapreeminentforumforinternationaleconomiccooperation,whichbringstogethermajoreconomiesandrepresentativesoflargeinternationalinstitutionssuchastheWorldBankandInternationalMonetaryFund.GiventheglobaleconomicsignificanceoftheG20,andthecollectiveeconomicweightofitsmembership(whichaccountsforlargesharesofglobaleconomicoutputandtrade),G20membershipindicatesthatacountryisdeveloped.Thus,Argentina,Brazil,India,Indonesia,andSouthAfricaareineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,notwithstandingthat,basedonthemostrecentWorldBankdata,eachcountryhasapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375.

TheU.S.TradeRepresentativedidnotconsidersocialdevelopmentindicatorssuchasinfantmortalityrates,adultilliteracyrates,andlifeexpectancyatbirth,asabasisforchangingadesignation.TheU.S.TradeRepresentativedidconsiderthatifacountryconsidersitselfadevelopedcountry,orhasnotdeclareditselfadevelopingcountryinitsaccessiontotheWTO,itshouldnotbeconsideredadevelopingcountryforpurposesoftheSCMAgreement.Therefore,Albania,Armenia,Georgia,Kazakhstan,theKyrgyzRepublic,Moldova,Montenegro,NorthMacedonia,andUkraineareineligibleforthe2percentdeminimisstandard,notwithstandingthat,basedonthemostrecentWorldBankdata,eachcountryhasapercapitaGNIbelow$12,375.

Furthermore,the1998ruleomittedWTOMembersthatinthepasthadbeen,orcouldhavebeen,consideredasnonmarketeconomycountriesnotsubjecttotheCVDlaw.BecausenonmarketeconomiesmaynowbesubjecttoCVDlaw,thelistssetforthinthisnoticedonotomitnonmarketeconomies.

The1998ruleincludedalistof‘‘developedcountries’’thatdidnotqualifyasdevelopingorleastdeveloped.Becausesection771(36)oftheActdoesnotrequiretheU.S.TradeRepresentativetomaintainalistofdevelopedcountries,thisnoticedoesnotincludesuchalist.

Inaccordancewithsection771(36)oftheAct,importsfromleast-developedanddevelopingWTOMemberssetforthinthefollowinglistsaresubjecttoademinimisstandardof2percentandanegligibleimportstandardof4percent:


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